Bone Regeneration: Continued Potential & Success with Titanium in Additive Manufacturing
In ‘Bone Regeneration on Implants of Titanium Alloys Produced By Laser Powder Bed Fusion: A Review,” the authors examine the continued potential for titanium in bioprinting, as this metal continues to progress in use for the medical field. Pointing out that ‘extensive work’ has been performed in this area, the authors take time to pinpoint areas open for future work, with an emphasis on bone regeneration.
Because titanium has been researched so thoroughly and is in such wide use today, the authors point out it is no secret that these types of metal implants can be produced successfully in 3D printing and additive manufacturing—with laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) offering the greatest benefits. The reviewers are specifically interested in Ti and Ti6Al4V implants, and details required for osseointegration.
Bone regeneration occurs through the following:
The bone healing process can be extensive too, beginning with a blood clot forming around the fracture, then new blood vessels forming, new bone formation, and then ‘the remodeling phase,’ which can even take years. For titanium alloys, the reviewers point out that fabrication of a porous structure causes such a reduction of the elastic modulus that the implant becomes even more like the bone.
Nutrients must be carried to areas where bone is expected to grow, and there must be enough space for vascularization to occur, with pore spaces that are exactly the right size.
One of the more interesting topics pertains to analysis of biomaterial scaffolds, with a variety of different materials promoting bone growth, such as:
Each of these different materials can also have different impacts on bone regeneration.
Implants require the following:
Samples created through LPBF can show a wide range of variances due to building strategy, contour, overhangs, and scanning procedures. Manufacturing of lattices brings challenges such as limits in production, a host of possible defects, and issues with size.
Cell adhesion is divided into three different stages, with attachment impacted by factors such as surface structure, texture, wetting, chemical composition, and charge at physiologic pH of implant surface.
As 3D printing with metal takes off, titanium is one of the most popular materials, used for innovations like maxillofacial implants, brake components for Bugatti, and even veterinary implants. And that is just one type of metal powder being used, as industrial users seek stronger, more lightweight parts available through additive manufacturing. What do you think of this news? Let us know your thoughts! Join the discussion of this and other 3D printing topics at 3DPrintBoard.com.
[Source / Images:Bone regeneration on implants of titanium alloys produced by laser powder bed fusion: a review]
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April 26, 2019 at 02:57AM